The UK will oversee financial services in the new 28-strong European Commission – a surprise move that delighted the UK’s PM David Cameron.
The job goes to Jonathan Hill, former leader of the House of Lords.
France also got a powerful post – ex-Finance Minister Pierre Moscovici, a socialist, will run EU economic policy.
There has been intense national rivalry over the top jobs. There are seven vice-presidents for key areas such as growth, better regulation and energy.
Three of the seven powerful new posts have gone to women.
Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker announced the details, saying the new team was “geared to give Europe its new start”.
The team includes five former prime ministers, four deputy prime ministers and seven returning commissioners, appointed for a new five-year term.
The Commission is seen as the most powerful EU institution, as it drafts EU laws, ensures compliance with EU treaties and negotiates far-reaching trade deals with international partners.
It is the target of much hostility from Eurosceptics, who accuse Brussels of wasting taxpayers’ money and creating too many regulations, handicapping businesses.
EU officials say that having a detailed common rulebook, enforceable EU-wide, helps the single market by reducing national barriers.