The EU and US could seek to isolate Russia by severing diplomatic links and military dialogue.
Another option might be to attempt to remove Russia from international bodies such as the World Trade Organisation, International Monetary Fund or World Bank.
Also, President Vladimir Putin has been very keen to bolster co-operation on investment, research and education.
Marginalising him on the international stage could be a blow to Moscow’s prestige, although it is unlikely to do much damage economically.
That said, the EU and US will not want to cut off dialogue with Russia.
That would certainly ratchet up the pressure on Moscow. Rhe EU is by far Russia’s biggest trading partner.
Imports to the EU from Russia are dominated by crude oil and gas. According to the Energy Information Administration, European countries import 84% of Russia’s oil exports, and about 76% of its natural gas.
Germany is the single biggest importer of Russian oil and gas, while the UK buys about 6% of Russia’s gas.